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The Goal

Message Queues can be used for a vast amount of problems, from establishing worker processes to managing load on expensive resources. But, how can you effectively use WebSphere MQ with WebSphere Application Server? Let’s find out!

This tutorial assumes you already have WebSphere Application Server installed, and either have WebSphere MQ installed or have it accessible. If you still need WebSphere Application Server, click here to grab WebSphere Application Server for Developers. If you need WebSphere MQ, grab WebSphere MQ v8 for Developers from here.

The Example

To demonstrate this, we’ll start with a simple “Hello World” with a basic servlet and an MDB, then move to a full blown Spring application.

Preparing WebSphere MQ

To simply the tutorial, I am running WebSphere MQ locally. If you are going to leverage an instance that is already configured and running, just skip ahead.

I already have the mqm user and group, but I will add my user to the mqm group as well:

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sudo usermod -a -G mqm craig

Next, I’ll create a new Queue Manager called TUTORIALQM and start the TCP listener. You can use MQExplorer to do this, or do the following:

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newgrp mqm
/opt/mqm/bin/crtmqm -u DLQ TUTORIALQM
/opt/mqm/bin/strmqm TUTORIALQM
/opt/mqm/bin/runmqlsr -m TUTORIALQM -t TCP &

Creating the Queues for the Tutorial

To keep it simple, I’ll just start with two queues: REQ.HELLO and RESP.HELLO (for my Hello World requests and responses). You may choose to use MQExplorer to do this, or do the following:

queuedefs.conf
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DEFINE QLOCAL ('REQ.HELLO') +
REPLACE
DEFINE QLOCAL ('RESP.HELLO') +
REPLACE
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/opt/mqm/bin/runmqsc TUTORIALQM < queuedefs.conf

Preparing WebSphere Application Server

Now that the queues are ready to go, we can startup WebSphere and configure our queues.

Defining the Queue Connection Factory

  1. Launch the WebSphere Admin Console (typically http://localhost:9060/ibm/console)
  2. Expand Resources -> JMS -> Queue connection factories
  3. Adjust the Scope drop down to Server=server1
  4. Click New
  5. Select WebSphere MQ messaging provider and click OK
  6. Enter a name and a JNDI name, I will use HelloConnectionFactory and jms/HelloConnectionFactory
  7. Click Next
  8. Select “Enter all the required information into the wizard” and click Next
  9. Enter the Queue Manager name (TUTORIALQM) and click Next
  10. Enter the hostname and port for MQ (localhost, port 1414) and finish the wizard
  11. Save the WebSphere configuration

Defining the Queues

Next, we have to define the Queues within WebSphere:

  1. Expand Resources -> JMS -> Queues
  2. Adjust the Scope drop down to Server=server1
  3. Click New
  4. Select WebSphere MQ messaging provider, click OK
  5. Enter a name and JNDI name for the request queue, as well as the Queue name.
    I will use:
    • Name: Request_HelloQueue
    • JNDI Name: jms/Request_HelloQueue
    • Queue name: REQ.HELLO
  6. Click OK
  7. Click New and repeat for the response queue:
    • Name: Response_HelloQueue
    • JNDI Name: jms/Response_HelloQueue
    • Queue name: RESP.HELLO
  8. Save the WebSphere configuration

Defining the Activation Specification

Lastly, we need to define an Activation specification to invoke our Message-Driver Bean. Within the Admin Console:

  1. Expand Resources -> JMS -> Activation specification
  2. Adjust the Scope drop down to Server=server1
  3. Click New
  4. Select WebSphere MQ messaging provider, click OK
  5. Enter a name and JNDI name, I will use Activation_Hello and jms/Activation_Hello
  6. Click Next
  7. Enter the destination queue’s JNDI name (the request queue JNDI name we defined earlier, jms/Request_HelloQueue) and click Next
  8. Select “Enter all the required information into the wizard” and click Next
  9. Enter the Queue Manager name TUTORIALQM and click Next
  10. Enter the hostname and port for MQ (localhost, 1414) and complete the wizard
  11. Save the WebSphere configuration
  12. Restart WebSphere

A Basic Example Application

Before we get into a full application, let’s create a simple JSP + servlet and a Message-Driven Bean to demonstrate the basics.

To get started, create an EAR in Eclipse/RAD/RSA called BasicExample, a Dynamic Web Project called BasicExampleWeb, and an EJB Project called BasicExampleEjb (or clone my GitHub repository for the basic example and follow along).

Preparing the Web Application

First, we need to add our Queues and Connection factory to the IBM Web Binding XML file (ibm-web-bnd.xml in WEB-INF). The goal is to have our JNDI names available to the web resource, but allow us to change them in the application server if necessary.

  1. Open ibm-web-bnd.xml
  2. Click Add and select “Message Destination Reference”
  3. Enter jms/Request_HelloQueue into both Name and Binding Name
  4. Click Add and select “Message Destination Reference”
  5. Enter jms/Response_HelloQueue into both Name and Binding Name
  6. Click Add and select “Resource Reference”
  7. Enter jms/HelloConnectionFactory into both Name and Binding Name

Or, if you prefer XML:

ibm-web-bnd.xml
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-bnd
xmlns="http://websphere.ibm.com/xml/ns/javaee"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://websphere.ibm.com/xml/ns/javaee http://websphere.ibm.com/xml/ns/javaee/ibm-web-bnd_1_2.xsd"
version="1.2">
<virtual-host name="default_host" />
<message-destination-ref name="jms/Request_HelloQueue" binding-name="jms/Request_HelloQueue" />
<message-destination-ref name="jms/Response_HelloQueue" binding-name="jms/Response_HelloQueue" />
<resource-ref name="jms/HelloConnectionFactory" binding-name="jms/HelloConnectionFactory" />
</web-bnd>

Next, we need to add them into web.xml:

  1. Open web.xml
  2. Click Add and select “Resource Reference” and configure:
    • Name: jms/HelloConnectionFactory
    • Type: javax.jms.QueueConnectionFactory
    • Authentication: Container
    • Sharing scope: Shareable
  3. Click Add and select “Message Destination Reference” and configure:
    • Name: jms/Request_HelloQueue
  4. Click “New Destination”
    • Name: jms/Request_HelloQueue
  5. Select jms/Request_HelloQueue in the list and click Next
  6. Configure as such:
    • Type: javax.jms.Queue
    • Usage: Consumes
  7. Click Finish
  8. Click Add and select “Message Destination Reference” and configure:
    • Name: jms/Response_HelloQueue
  9. Click “New Destination”
    • Name: jms/Response_HelloQueue
  10. Select jms/Response_HelloQueue in the list and click Next
  11. Configure as such:
    • Type: javax.jms.Queue
    • Usage: Consumes
  12. Click Finish

Or, if you prefer XML:

web.xml
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app id="WebApp_ID" version="3.0"
xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_0.xsd">
<display-name>BasicExampleWeb</display-name>
<welcome-file-list>
<welcome-file>index.html</welcome-file>
<welcome-file>index.htm</welcome-file>
<welcome-file>index.jsp</welcome-file>
<welcome-file>default.html</welcome-file>
<welcome-file>default.htm</welcome-file>
<welcome-file>default.jsp</welcome-file>
</welcome-file-list>
<resource-ref>
<res-ref-name>jms/HelloConnectionFactory</res-ref-name>
<res-type>javax.jms.QueueConnectionFactory</res-type>
<res-auth>Container</res-auth>
<res-sharing-scope>Shareable</res-sharing-scope>
</resource-ref>
<message-destination-ref>
<message-destination-ref-name>jms/Request_HelloQueue</message-destination-ref-name>
<message-destination-type>javax.jms.Queue</message-destination-type>
<message-destination-usage>Consumes</message-destination-usage>
<message-destination-link>jms/Request_HelloQueue</message-destination-link>
</message-destination-ref>
<message-destination-ref>
<message-destination-ref-name>jms/Response_HelloQueue</message-destination-ref-name>
<message-destination-type>javax.jms.Queue</message-destination-type>
<message-destination-usage>Consumes</message-destination-usage>
<message-destination-link>jms/Response_HelloQueue</message-destination-link>
</message-destination-ref>
<message-destination>
<message-destination-name>jms/Request_HelloQueue</message-destination-name>
</message-destination>
<message-destination>
<message-destination-name>jms/Response_HelloQueue</message-destination-name>
</message-destination>
</web-app>

Preparing the EJB

First, we can just delete ejb-jar.xml, we don’t need it.

We do however want the ibm-ejb-jar-bnd.xml.

  1. Right click the EJB project
  2. Select Java EE Tools -> Generate WebSphere Bindings Deployment Descriptor

We cannot populate ibm-ejb-jar-bnd.xml with IBM’s tooling until after we’ve created the MDB, so let’s do that now.

  1. Right click the EJB project
  2. Select New -> Message Driven Bean (EJB 3.x)
  3. Configure the wizard as such:
    • Java package: com.craigstjean.mqtut.basic.mdb
    • Class name: HelloMDB
  4. Finish the wizard

Next, we can implement HelloMDB as such:

HelloMDB.java
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package com.craigstjean.mqtut.basic.mdb;
import javax.annotation.Resource;
import javax.ejb.ActivationConfigProperty;
import javax.ejb.MessageDriven;
import javax.ejb.MessageDrivenContext;
import javax.ejb.TransactionAttribute;
import javax.ejb.TransactionAttributeType;
import javax.jms.Connection;
import javax.jms.ConnectionFactory;
import javax.jms.Destination;
import javax.jms.JMSException;
import javax.jms.Message;
import javax.jms.MessageListener;
import javax.jms.MessageProducer;
import javax.jms.Session;
import javax.jms.TextMessage;
/**
* Message-Driven Bean implementation class for: HelloMDB
*/
@MessageDriven(
activationConfig = { @ActivationConfigProperty(
propertyName = "destinationType", propertyValue = "javax.jms.Queue")
})
public class HelloMDB implements MessageListener {
@Resource
private MessageDrivenContext mdCtx;
@Resource(name = "jms/HelloConnectionFactory")
private ConnectionFactory connectionFactoryRef;
@Resource(name = "jms/Response_HelloQueue")
private Destination resourceDestRef;
/**
* Default constructor.
*/
public HelloMDB() {
}
/**
* @see MessageListener#onMessage(Message)
*/
@Override
@TransactionAttribute(TransactionAttributeType.REQUIRED)
public void onMessage(Message message) {
String name = null;
try {
// Retrieve request
name = ((TextMessage) message).getText();
} catch (JMSException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
mdCtx.setRollbackOnly();
}
try {
// Process request
String responseData = "Hello, " + name;
// Create and send response message
sendResponse(message, responseData);
} catch (JMSException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
// TODO error handling goes here
// consider producing a copy of the message onto a dead letter queue
// (the same way a message is produced onto the response queue, but without expiry)
mdCtx.setRollbackOnly();
} catch (Exception e) {
// NOTE: Do not allow the MDB the throw an exception or it will stop processing messages
e.printStackTrace();
// TODO error handling goes here
// consider producing a copy of the message onto a dead letter queue
// (the same way a message is produced onto the response queue, but without expiry)
}
}
private void sendResponse(Message requestMessage, String responseData) throws JMSException {
Connection jmsConnection = null;
Session session = null;
try {
jmsConnection = connectionFactoryRef.createConnection();
session = jmsConnection.createSession(false, Session.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE);
TextMessage responseMessage = session.createTextMessage();
// ! Set correlation id from our original message id
responseMessage.setJMSCorrelationID(requestMessage.getJMSMessageID());
responseMessage.setText(responseData);
MessageProducer mp = session.createProducer(null);
// use 30 minute expiry
mp.setTimeToLive(1000 * 60 * 30);
mp.send(resourceDestRef, responseMessage);
} finally {
try {
if (session != null) {
session.close();
}
} catch (JMSException e) {
}
try {
if (jmsConnection != null) {
jmsConnection.close();
}
} catch (JMSException e) {
}
}
}
}

As you can see, when a message comes in it simply takes the input, creates a response, and pushes the response onto the response queue. To tie the request queue to HelloMDB:

  1. Open ibm-ejb-jar-bnd.xml
  2. Click Add and select “Message Driven”
  3. Select HelloMDB and click Next
  4. Select “Resource Reference” and click Next
  5. Select “jms/HelloConnectionFactory” and click Next
  6. Enter a binding name of “jms/HelloConnectionFactory” and click Finish
  7. Select “Message Driven (HelloMDB)” and click Add
  8. Select “JCA Adapter” and click OK
    Configure as following:
    • Activation Spec Binding Name: jms/Activation_Hello
    • Destination Binding Name: jms/Request_HelloQueue
  9. Select “Message Driven (HelloMDB)” and click Add
  10. Select “Message Destination Reference” and click OK
  11. Select “jms/Response_HelloQueue” and click Next
  12. Enter a binding name of “jms/Response_HelloQueue”

In all, the resulting XML is:

ibm-ejb-jar-bnd.xml
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<ejb-jar-bnd
xmlns="http://websphere.ibm.com/xml/ns/javaee"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://websphere.ibm.com/xml/ns/javaee http://websphere.ibm.com/xml/ns/javaee/ibm-ejb-jar-bnd_1_2.xsd"
version="1.2">
<message-driven name="HelloMDB">
<jca-adapter activation-spec-binding-name="jms/Activation_Hello" destination-binding-name="jms/Request_HelloQueue"/>
<resource-ref name="jms/HelloConnectionFactory"
binding-name="jms/HelloConnectionFactory" />
<message-destination-ref
name="jms/Response_HelloQueue"
binding-name="jms/Response_HelloQueue" />
</message-driven>
</ejb-jar-bnd>

Finishing the Web Application

With our MDB complete, all we need to do is update the web application to take a name, post a message onto the request queue, wait for a response, then return it to the user.

It’s not pretty, but it demonstrates the point:

index.jsp
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<!DOCTYPE HTML><%@page language="java"
contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<html>
<head>
<title>index</title>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
</head>
<body>
<form action="servlet/hello" method="POST">
<div>
Name:
<input type="text" name="name">
</div>
<div>
<input type="submit">
</div>
</form>
<div>
${message}
</div>
</body>
</html>
HelloServlet.java
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package com.craigstjean.mqtut.basic.servlet;
import java.io.IOException;
import javax.annotation.Resource;
import javax.jms.Connection;
import javax.jms.ConnectionFactory;
import javax.jms.Destination;
import javax.jms.JMSException;
import javax.jms.Message;
import javax.jms.MessageConsumer;
import javax.jms.MessageProducer;
import javax.jms.Session;
import javax.jms.TextMessage;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
@WebServlet(urlPatterns = "/servlet/hello")
public class HelloServlet extends HttpServlet {
private static final long serialVersionUID = -8211165987639677828L;
@Resource(name = "java:comp/env/jms/HelloConnectionFactory")
private ConnectionFactory connectionFactory;
@Resource(name = "java:comp/env/jms/Request_HelloQueue")
private Destination requestQueue;
@Resource(name = "java:comp/env/jms/Response_HelloQueue")
private Destination responseQueue;
@Override
protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, IOException {
String name = req.getParameter("name");
Connection jmsConnection = null;
Session session = null;
String response = null;
try {
jmsConnection = connectionFactory.createConnection();
session = jmsConnection.createSession(false, Session.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE);
TextMessage requestMessage = session.createTextMessage();
requestMessage.setText(name);
MessageProducer mp = session.createProducer(null);
// use 30 minute expiry
mp.setTimeToLive(1000 * 60 * 30);
mp.send(requestQueue, requestMessage);
String messageSelector = "JMSCorrelationID='" + requestMessage.getJMSMessageID() + "'";
MessageConsumer mc = session.createConsumer(responseQueue, messageSelector);
jmsConnection.start();
Message responseMessage = mc.receive(5 * 1000);
if (responseMessage != null) {
response = ((TextMessage) responseMessage).getText();
} else {
response = "No message found within 5 seconds...";
}
req.setAttribute("message", response);
req.getRequestDispatcher("/index.jsp").forward(req, resp);
} catch (JMSException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
} finally {
try {
if (session != null) {
session.close();
}
} catch (JMSException e) {
}
try {
if (jmsConnection != null) {
jmsConnection.close();
}
} catch (JMSException e) {
}
}
}
}

Up Next

Now that the basic example is complete, my next post will be a more fully fledged application!

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spring-boot

As Spring continues to evolve, it’s capabilities become more and more attractive to use. Checkout this great article by David Parish on using Spring Boot with WebSphere!

Spring Boot is a wonderful tool for creating rich powerful applications with a limited amount of code or complexity. It can optionally include Spring Data with JPA support. The Spring abstraction layer for JPA makes creating database independent applications a snap. The problem is that it uses JPA 2.1 features which WebSphere 8.5.5 does not support.

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Fotolia_81329697_XS_T.png

Some Background

WebSphere controls whether applications (EARs and WARs) are in PARENT_FIRST or PARENT_LAST classloading mode by its deployment.xml. RAD, or Rational Application Developer, has tools to generate this, as does the application server itself, but the Eclipse plugins do not at the time of this writing. So how do you configure your applications?

Wait, what does the classloading mode do?

Simply, when your application attempts to load a class, say IOUtils from Apache Commons IO, the JVM needs to know what to do when it finds multiple classes with the same fully qualified name. You could have classes provided by your application server, global JARs that you have put into your application server, and JARs in your application.

_PARENT_FIRST _classloading means take classes found in WebSphere (the parent), or global JARs first. So if you bundle a version of Apache Commons IO that doesn’t match the parent version, your application will run with the parent version instead of your application’s version.

_PARENTLAST classloading means prefer your application’s first.

So what’s the problem?

Imagine this scenario:

  • Your servers have global JARs setup that specific applications running in the same WebSphere profile require
  • You start a new application in your local development environment and you don’t realize the server has overridden certain JARs
  • You bundle newer versions of those JARs in your application
    So, with the “It works on my machine” stamp of approval you push to your servers only to find… failure.

There are plenty of other scenarios that could lead to an issue as well.

What’s the silver bullet?!

Unfortunately, there is no silver bullet. You may want to re-evaluate having shared libraries, update their versions, change the classloading mode of your application, or use a different WebSphere profile. The right answer really depends on your environment, but if changing the classloading mode is right for you, read on!

Changing the classloading mode

There are a few ways to make this change:

  • Deploy your application to WebSphere and update the configuration in the admin console (or wsadmin)
  • Use RAD (Rational Application Developer) to change it, if you have RAD
  • Or, use a new tool that I’ve created!

Generating deployment.xml in WebSphere

To obtain a deployment.xml from WebSphere:

  1. Build your application as an EAR
  2. Manually install it to WebSphere (via your admin console at http://localhost:9060/ibm/console for example)
  3. Open your application in the admin console and configure your EAR’s classloader mode
  4. Use Manage Modules to configure the WARs’ classloader modes
  5. Save your changes to WebSphere
  6. Export your application from the admin console as an EAR
  7. Copy its ibmconfig with deployment.xml deeply nested in it

Generating deployment.xml in RAD

Generating deployment.xml in RAD is much easier:

  1. Right click your EAR
  2. Go to Java EE -> Open WebSphere Application Server Deployment
  3. Scroll to the bottom and configure classloader settings as desired

Comparing WebSphere’s generated deployment.xml to RAD’s

Updating the configuration in WebSphere generates a deployment.xml that you may not want to re-use. Let’s take a look at the differences:

WebSphere’s version

deployment.xml
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<?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>
<appdeployment:Deployment xmlns:appdeployment=“http://www.ibm.com/websphere/appserver/schemas/5.0/appdeployment.xmi“ xmlns:xmi=“http://www.omg.org/XMI“ xmi:version=“2.0” xmi:id=“Deployment_1428026415557”>
<deployedObject xmi:type=“appdeployment:ApplicationDeployment” xmi:id=“ApplicationDeployment_1428026415557” deploymentId=“0” startingWeight=“1” binariesURL=“$(APP_INSTALL_ROOT)/WIN-F8QH15674T8Node02Cell/JpaExample.ear” useMetadataFromBinaries=“false” enableDistribution=“true” createMBeansForResources=“true” reloadEnabled=“false” appContextIDForSecurity=“href:WIN-F8QH15674T8Node02Cell/JpaExample” filePermission=“..dll=755#..so=755#..a=755#..sl=755” allowDispatchRemoteInclude=“false” allowServiceRemoteInclude=“false” asyncRequestDispatchType=“DISABLED” standaloneModule=“false” enableClientModule=“false”>
<targetMappings xmi:id=“DeploymentTargetMapping_1428026415557” enable=“true” target=“ServerTarget_1428026415557” />
<modules xmi:type=“appdeployment:WebModuleDeployment” xmi:id=“WebModuleDeployment_1428026415557” deploymentId=“1” startingWeight=“10000” uri=“JpaExampleWeb.war” classloaderMode=“PARENT_LAST” containsEJBContent=“0”>
<targetMappings xmi:id=“DeploymentTargetMapping_1428026415558” target=“ServerTarget_1428026415557” />
<classloader xmi:id=“Classloader_1428026415558” />
</modules>
<classloader xmi:id=“Classloader_1428026415557” mode=“PARENT_LAST” />
<properties xmi:id=“Property_1428026415557” name=“metadata.complete” value=“false” />
</deployedObject>
<deploymentTargets xmi:type=“appdeployment:ServerTarget” xmi:id=“ServerTarget_1428026415557” name=“server1” nodeName=“WIN-F8QH15674T8Node02” />
</appdeployment:Deployment>

RAD’s version:

deployment.xml
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<?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>
<appdeployment:Deployment xmlns:appdeployment=“http://www.ibm.com/websphere/appserver/schemas/5.0/appdeployment.xmi“ xmlns:xmi=“http://www.omg.org/XMI“ xmi:version=“2.0” xmi:id=“Deployment_1423511656329”>
<deployedObject xmi:type=“appdeployment:ApplicationDeployment” xmi:id=“ApplicationDeployment_1423511656329” startingWeight=“10”>
<modules xmi:type=“appdeployment:WebModuleDeployment” xmi:id=“WebModuleDeployment_1423511656329” startingWeight=“10000” uri=“JpaExample.war” classloaderMode=“PARENT_LAST” />
<classloader xmi:id=“Classloader_1423511656329” mode=“PARENT_LAST” />
</deployedObject>
</appdeployment:Deployment>

The differences

Primarily, the WebSphere version includes node/cell specifics. If you take that version and deploy to a different server, you will end up with new folders in your profile/installedApps directory. This doesn’t cause any issues (that I’ve experienced) but its annoying.

A better solution for non-RAD users

If you take a look at the RAD version, its pretty basic and just lists the applications deployed and which classloading mode they are in. The ids are a standard format with the time after them.

So, assuming you are not using anything else in deployment.xml, this file is easy to reproduce! And to make it easier, I created a command line application to do it for you!

https://github.com/craigstjean/WebSphere-Deployment-Xml-Tool

To use it, invoke the JAR, passing it your application.xml as the first parameter, followed by either:

  • Nothing (which shows you its menu)
  • list (lists the EAR and all web application’s classloading mode)
  • set parent first (sets the EAR and all web applications to PARENT_FIRST)
  • set parent last (sets the EAR and all web applications to PARENT_LAST)
    For example:
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java -jar WebSphere-Deployment-Xml-Tool.jar C:\workspace\MyProject\MyEar\META-INF\application.xml set parent last

And that’s it!

If you have any troubles with it, please create a GitHub issue and I’ll take a look!

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Getting Spring and Hibernate to place nice with WebSphere via JPA is an adventure in trial and error. In this post, I will guide you through what you need to make it work!

Just want the code? Head over to my GitHub at https://github.com/craigstjean/WebSphere-JPA-Spring-Hibernate

WebSphere 8.5 Users

Before we get started: WebSphere 8.5 supports JPA 2.0, not JPA 2.1. Be careful not to grab Hibernate JARs for JPA 2.1.

Obtaining Dependencies and Initial Setup

First thing’s first, I grabbed the following dependencies:

  • Hibernate 4.2.17.Final

    • lib/jpa/hibernate-entitymanager-4.2.17.Final.jar
    • lib/required/antlr-2.7.7.jar
    • lib/required/dom4j-1.6.1.jar
    • lib/required/hibernate-commons-annotations-4.0.2.Final.jar
    • lib/required/hibernate-core-4.2.17.Final.jar
    • lib/required/javassist-3.18.1-GA.jar
    • lib/required/jboss-logging-3.1.0.GA.jar
    • WARNING: Do not take the following JARs, they conflict with the APIs built in to WebSphere:

      *   lib/required/hibernate-jpa-2.0-api-1.0.1.Final.jar
      
      • lib/required/jboss-transaction-api_1.1_spec-1.0.1.Final.jar
  • Spring 4.1.6.RELEASE

    • aopalliance-1.0.jar
    • commons-codec-1.10.jar
    • spring-aop-4.1.6.RELEASE.jar
    • spring-beans-4.1.6.RELEASE.jar
    • spring-context-4.1.6.RELEASE.jar
    • spring-context-support-4.1.6.RELEASE.jar
    • spring-core-4.1.6.RELEASE.jar
    • spring-expression-4.1.6.RELEASE.jar
    • spring-instrument-4.1.6.RELEASE.jar
    • spring-jdbc-4.1.6.RELEASE.jar
    • spring-orm-4.1.6.RELEASE.jar
    • spring-tx-4.1.6.RELEASE.jar
    • spring-web-4.1.6.RELEASE.jar
    • spring-webmvc-4.1.6.RELEASE.jar
  • slf4j (Logging)

    • slf4j-api-1.7.12.jar
    • slf4j-simple-1.7.12.jar (just for the example)
    • jcl-over-slf4j-1.7.12.jar
      Additionally, I setup my application to use PARENT_LAST classloading. This is just something I have gotten used to, so if you have difficulties getting your code to work and you are not in PARENT_LAST, give that a try.

Setting up web.xml

First, add the following for Spring:

    <context-param>
       <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
       <param-value>/WEB-INF/spring/application-context.xml</param-value>
    </context-param>

    <listener>
       <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
    </listener>

    <listener>
       <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.request.RequestContextListener</listener-class>
    </listener>

    <servlet>
       <servlet-name>dispatcher</servlet-name>
       <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
        <init-param>
          <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
          <param-value>/WEB-INF/spring/servlet-context.xml</param-value>
        </init-param>
        <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup>
    </servlet>
    <servlet-mapping>
       <servlet-name>dispatcher</servlet-name>
       <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
    </servlet-mapping>
Next, I have my datasource bound to jdbc/ExampleDb, and my Persistence Unit name will be Example Unit, so I added:
    <resource-ref>
       <res-ref-name>jdbc/ExampleDb</res-ref-name>
       <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type>
       <res-auth>Container</res-auth>
       <res-sharing-scope>Shareable</res-sharing-scope>
    </resource-ref>

    <persistence-unit-ref>
       <persistence-unit-ref-name>persistence/ExampleUnit</persistence-unit-ref-name>
       <persistence-unit-name>ExampleUnit</persistence-unit-name>
    </persistence-unit-ref>

ibm-web-bnd.xml

Don’t forget to bind your data source resource in ibm-web-bnd.xml:

<resource-ref name="jdbc/ExampleDb" binding-name="jdbc/ExampleDb" />

Spring Configuration

The servlet-context.xml has nothing special in it for this example, but the application-context.xml does. It points Spring to the WebSphere UOW Transaction Manager, and references the persistence unit to use:

    <bean id="entityManagerFactory" class="javax.persistence.Persistence" factory-method="createEntityManagerFactory">
        <constructor-arg type="java.lang.String" value="ExampleUnit" />
    </bean>

    <bean id="transactionManager"
        class="org.springframework.transaction.jta.WebSphereUowTransactionManager" />
    <tx:annotation-driven transaction-manager="transactionManager" proxy-target-class="true" />

persistence.xml

And lastly, the persistence.xml:

<?xml version=”1.0” encoding=”UTF-8”?>
<persistence xmlns=”http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence
xmlns:xsi=”http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance
xsi:schemaLocation=”http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/persistence_2_0.xsd
version=”2.0”>
<persistence-unit name=”ExampleUnit” transaction-type=”JTA”>
<provider>org.hibernate.ejb.HibernatePersistence</provider>
<jta-data-source>java:comp/env/jdbc/ExampleDb</jta-data-source>
<properties>
<property name=”hibernate.dialect” value=”org.hibernate.dialect.PostgreSQLDialect” />
<property name=”hibernate.transaction.factory_class” value=”org.hibernate.transaction.CMTTransactionFactory” />
<property name=”hibernate.transaction.jta.platform” value=”org.hibernate.service.jta.platform.internal.WebSphereExtendedJtaPlatform” />
<property name=”hibernate.transaction.flush_before_completion” value=”true” />
<property name=”hibernate.transaction.auto_close_session” value=”true” />
<property name=”hibernate.temp.use_jdbc_metadata_defaults” value=”false” />
<property name=”hibernate.show_sql” value=”false” />
<property name=”hibernate.query.substitutions” value=”true ‘Y’, false ‘N’” />
<property name=”hibernate.cache.use_second_level_cache” value=”true” />
</properties>
</persistence-unit>
</persistence>

Here we are doing the following:

  • Setting transaction-type to JTA (Java Transaction API)
  • Setting the JPA Provider to Hibernate
  • Setting the data source to our web component’s ExampleDb
  • Setting Hibernate to use the PostgreSQL dialect
  • Setting Hibernate to use the CMTTransactionFactory for container managed transactions
  • Setting Hibernate to use Webphere’s JTA Platform
  • And so on
    Note that I did have an issue with Hibernate on startup trying to determine type information, which is what hibernate.temp.use_jdbc_metadata_defaults resolved for me. I did not have to set this when using Oracle. This did not used to occur with older versions of Hibernate (e.g. 4.1.9.Final).

Congratulations!

WebSphere is now running a Spring MVC web application, leveraging JPA 2.0 and Hibernate! For my full source, checkout GitHub at https://github.com/craigstjean/WebSphere-JPA-Spring-Hibernate

WebSphere 7.0 Users

I have had success using Hibernate 4.1.9.Final using the same configuration, though I was using version 1.0 in my persistence.xml. Also, you must place the Hibernate JPA API 2.0 JAR that is included with Hibernate in the lib directory. If you migrate to WebSphere 8.5, you must remove that JAR.

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Did you know you can run WebSphere Application Server in development mode, which optimizes it for less powerful hardware and for applications which see frequent updates? It’s actually quite easy, whether you are creating a new profile or working with an exciting one!

Creating a New Profile with the Profile Management Tool

If you are creating a new profile, via the Profile Management Tool (or PMT), just make sure you select these two boxes:

  1. Use the “Advanced profile creation” mode
    2015-03-20 10_57_44-Profile Management Tool 8.5
    This allows you to tweak some very simple settings that you may be interested in, I recommend all people using PMT to create their profiles in this mode.
  2. Switch “Server runtime performance tuning setting” to “Development”
    2015-03-20 11_03_18-Profile Management Tool 8.5
  3. Then just finish the wizard with the settings you want!

Creating a New Profile via the Command Line manageprofiles Tool

For those command-line junkies like myself, creating a new profile via manageprofiles in development is also extremely easy. Simply add this flag to your -create parameter list:

-isDeveloperServer

That’s it! To read more about the parameters for manageprofiles, see here.

Modifying a Profile via the WebSphere Admin Console

If you’ve already created your profile, and want to simply enable development mode, simply log into the admin console and change it! It goes like this:

  1. Go to the WebSphere Administrative Console (e.g. http://localhost:9060/ibm/console)
  2. Log in

    1. Tip: If you do not have security enabled, just click Log In
  3. Drill into WebSphere application servers
    2015-03-20 11_08_46-WebSphere Integrated Solutions Console

  4. Drill into your server (e.g. server1)
    2015-03-20 11_09_01-WebSphere Integrated Solutions Console
  5. And check the following boxes:

    1. Run in development mode
    2. Parallel start
    3. Start components as needed
      2015-03-20 11_09_09-WebSphere Integrated Solutions Console
  6. Then click Save, and restart your server!

Modifying a Profile via the Command Line wsadmin Tool

Enabling development mode on an existing server is the most complicated choice, but luckily it is still pretty straight forward. Just follow these steps:

  1. Start your server (via Eclipse/RAD/RSA/Other IDE, or by command line)

    1. To start by command line, open your command prompt
    2. cd into your profile’s bin directory (e.g. C:\Profiles\MyAwesomeProfile\bin)
    3. startServer.bat server1 (or, ./startServer.sh server1 if you are not on Windows)
  2. With the command prompt in the bin directory (from the above steps), execute the following:

    wsadmin.bat server1
    set server [$AdminConfig getid /Server:server1/]
    $AdminConfig modify $server "{developmentMode true}"
    $AdminConfig modify $server "{parallelStartEnabled true}"
    $AdminConfig save
    quit
  3. Then, just restart your server!

    1. Tip: You can use stopServer.bat server1 to do this too (or ./stopServer.sh server1)
      Enjoy!

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Craig St. Jean

Father, programmer, constant learner, @pluralsight author


Software Architect